Telangana is a state in the Southern region of India. It has an area of 114,840 sq. km and is the twelfth largest state in India. Most of it was part of the princely state of Hyderabad (Medak and Warangal Divisions), which was ruled by the Nizams during the British Raj until 1947, and later until 1948, when it joined the Union of India. In 1956, Hyderabad state was dissolved and Andhra State was merged with the Telangana region of the state of Hyderabad to form the state of Andhra Pradesh. On 2 June 2014, Telangana became the 29th state of India, consisting of the ten north-western districts of Andhra Pradesh with Hyderabad as its capital. The city of Hyderabad will continue to serve as the joint capital for Andhra Pradesh and the successor state of Telengana for a period of ten years.
Telangana is bordered by the states of Odisha and Chhattisgarh to the north, to the west by Maharastra and Karnataka, on the south and east by Andhra Pradesh. Telangana has an area of 114,840 square kilometres (44,340 sq mi), and a population of 35,286,757 (2011 census). Hyderabad, Warangal and Nizamabad are the major cities in the state.
The name Telangana is thought to have been derived from the word Trilinga, as in the Trilinga Desa, which translates to "the country of the three lingas". According to a Hindu legend, Shiva descended in lingam form on three mountains, Kaleshwaram, Srisailam and Draksharama, which marked the boundaries of the Trilingadesa, later called Telinga, Telunga or Telugu.
The name "Telangana" was designated to distinguish the predominantly Telugu-speaking region of the erstwhile Hyderabad State from its predominantly Marathi-speaking one, Marathwada.
One of the earliest uses of a word similar to Telangana can be seen in a name of Malik Maqbul (14th century C.E.), who was called the Tilangani, which implies that he was from Tilangana. He was the commander of Warangal Fort.
Telangana has three National Parks: Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park in Hyderabad district, and Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park and Mrugavani National Park in Ranga Reddy district.
Wildlife Sanctuaries in Telangana include Eturunagaram Wildlife Sanctuary and Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary in Warangal District, Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary and Pranahita Wildlife Sanctuary in Adilabad district, Kinnerasani Wildlife Sanctuary in Khammam district, Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary in Medak district, Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve in Nalgonda and Mahbubnagar districts and in Andhra Pradesh, Pocharam Wildlife Sanctuary in Medak and Nizamabad districts, Shivaram Wildlife Sanctuary in Karimnagar district, and Siwaram Wildlife Sanctuary in Adilabad and Karimnagar districts.